Probably the most important thing the academics do is publishing – articles in peer-reviewed journals, chapters in edited volumes, and monographs. The motto is “publish or perish.”
Over the last century scientific publishing has been dominated by for-profit publishers. A major exception is journals published by scientific societies, but many journals have been sold by societies to for-profit publishers. In the book-publishing business, some university presses are quite good, but others seem to take on the characteristics of the worst for-profit publishers.
The relationship between scientific publishers and scholars may have started as a symbiotic one, but in the last decade or two many for-profit publishers allowed their greed to exceed all reasonable bounds. I have written about it in my previous blogs:
The Impending Demise of Greedy For-Profit Scientific Publishers (Part I)
The Impending Demise of Greedy For-Profit Scientific Publishers (Part II)
Greedy Publishers III: Oxford University Press
Well, folks, the publishing landscape is changing very rapidly (perhaps that’s why the greedy for-profit publishers are becoming worse – do they see the writing on the wall?). When I and colleagues started our journal Cliodynamics in 2010, there was no question in my mind that we would run it as an independent publication. It was a good decision. Getting Cliodynamics off the ground has been a lot of work, but it has been worth it. I’ll write a blog soon about how it’s doing. Note that it doesn’t cost to either publish, or read articles in our journal. There are few journals like that. Even successful new-model journals, such as PLOS ONE, require cash contributions from authors to run.
Over the past two years I have been also mulling whether I should enter the world of Indy publishing and 2015 is going to be the year when I finally take the plunge. I am not severing all ties to the world of traditional academic publishing, but there are three current projects that I want to publish myself and see how it goes.
The first one is actually my very first book, Quantitative Analysis of Movement, which was published by Sinauer in 1998.
Some years ago Sinauer dropped it, and reverted the rights to me. I periodically get inquiries about it, and there seems to be some market in it. At least, nobody has published another methods book that would supersede mine. Several second-hand book stores offer a copy of Quantitative Analysis of Movement at prices ranging from $769.99 to $3,115.00. Naturally, nobody in their sane mind would plunk down this much cash for a technical book, but I take it as a sign that there is an unfulfilled demand. I will probably not sell a lot of copies, but I wonder what will happen if I offer it at a price of 20 bucks. We’ll see.
The other two projects are new books. One is a trade book on the rise of complex societies and civilizations; the other is more of a textbook on Cultural and Social Evolution.
My plan is to blog about the process of becoming an Indy author, so expect periodic updates on how this venture is proceeding. In doing this I have a selfish motive, and a prosocial one. The selfish motive is that I hope that you, readers of my blog, will pitch in with advice and feedback on various decisions that I am about to make. The prosocial motive is that some of you may also be contemplating becoming an independent author, so perhaps my experience will be of help to you. And hopefully all of you will be entertained reading about my fight against the publishing Goliaths!
The first step is to select the name of my publishing house. After some discussions within a small circle I have tentatively settled on Beresta Books. ‘Beresta’ in Russian means birch bark. Birch bark was used in early medieval Novgorod as paper is used today. It was much cheaper than parchment or vellum (made from animal skin). Most Novgorodians were literate, and they thought nothing of scribbling a note on a piece of birch bark and sending it to a friend or business partner. After reading the note, the recipient would often tear it apart and throw it away in the mud, like this one, which was much later recovered by archaeologists:
Of course most readers will have no idea of what Beresta means, and it’s not important that they do. What I need is a name that is distinctive, but still euphonious enough (that is, it sounds nice). So, native speakers of English – what do you think? What kind of reaction would you have if you saw a book published by a publishing house named Beresta Books?
The second decision I need to make is whether to incorporate. The choice is between DBA and LLC. DBA means ‘doing business as.’ I simply register Beresta Books as a name under which I, as individual, do business. It’s simple and cheap and seems to be the logical first step to take.
The alternative is to establish a Limited Liability Company (LLC). The advantage is that if Beresta Books LLC gets sued, and loses in a big way, I only lose the business itself. My personal assets are protected. But LLC is more expensive to establish and maintain. Tax reporting requirements are also more onerous. So until my new Indy publishing house starts generating real revenue, it doesn’t seem like a good idea to register it as an LLC. Thoughts?
Another model would be a not-for-profit charity. If it actually does make money, you can pay yourself and any assistants you need reasonable salaries and use any additional money to subsidize your authors and in related good works.
Evolution Institute is a not-for-profit charity, so I have a little experience with it. The problem is that you immediately invite scrutiny from the IRS. Also, you have to constantly justify your non-profit status. So it’s a lot of work!
I was involved with incorporating HBES and running it under incorporation. The reporting requirements did not seem too onerous. True, we did not pay any salaries. That probably triggers more scrutiny.
Beresta is appealing but immediately brings to my mind barista (coffee seller) and hence, coffee associations. I don’t know if that is a bad thing though… coffee and books typically go well together.
Coffee to me is good!
This is exciting, good luck!
Thanks, John! Hope my Odyssey will make for entertaining reading, at the very least.
‘Novgorodians were literate, and they thought nothing of scribbling a note on a piece of birch bark and sending it to a friend or business partner.’
The most amazing are love notes like ‘Come, my love, I will be waiting for you behind the barn’.
Beresta sounds very good to me, but you better listen to the Anglophone advice.
I saw this one! It suggests that women were also literate – a very rare thing in pre-modern societies.
Peter, unless the maintenance cost difference is very high, I believe it is more secure to go the LLC route. As you write in the post, if there is a black swan in the shape of an expensive legal process it might make a difference.
I wish you the best and looking forward to reading your new books.
Thanks, Francisco. To register LLC I will need to pay fees that are over $100. Additionally, as I understand the info on the CT government site, I will have to pay $250 per year just to renew the LLC. So I am going to wait until I have more revenue from the business before I make the move to LLC. But this can happen rapidly, if my books start to sell!
That’s chump change. Especially since a tenured professor can expect a steady cashflow.
I would not take the risk of not incorporating.
Beresta sounds fine. And I don’t know why but listening to spoken Russian, of which I understand nothing, always sounds appealing to my English ears.
Sure Peter. Your hunches are what most people in fields like consulting do when starting a fresh venture, in my experience … start as DBA and when it starts to make enough money to be worth it, then incorporate … I love the name …has some vague whiff of ‘beast’ and (high) ‘rating’… just saw Chris’ Starbucks link which is also true and appropriate, imho..
Charities with a left-ish bent in this country (Canada) are under serious attack by our most right wing (and soon to be extinct many of us hope) government ever… and my understanding (not personal experience) is that documentation costs are onerous (in both time and money) for charitable status most places…
A B Corp (enterprise with social as well as fiduciary obligations and commitments) is also an option in some jurisdictions, but again I have no personal experience…
Good luck with it … many of us are also experimenting in this new realm,
If I didn’t know the Russian meaning, Beresta would sound vaguely Italian/Spanish to me, as in ‘Canasta’ – a basket in Spanish (also the name of a card game).
Peter, as a business owner myself, I would generally recommend that you consider going the LLC route to protect yourself from liability concerns. The federal tax consequences are fairly minimal. You will have to file a Schedule C as part of your federal return to document any profit or loss from your business. However, you would have to do that anyway even if you simply establish your enterprise as sole proprietorship, which is what your “DBA” would imply. In addition, it should not change your tax rate.
There are a few additional paperwork requirements, in that you will need to establish the LLC in the state in which you wish to organize (probably the state in which you reside). You also need (very important!) to check to ensure that your state of residence will not inflict some onerous tax burden on you as a result of your organizational selection. For example, here in Texas (an otherwise business-friendly state), there is a 1% franchise tax that is based on gross revenues and not net income, and only applies to LLCs and corporations. This can be pretty onerous for low-margin or near zero-profit businesses. Fortunately, it does not apply if revenues are below $1,000,000.
Your other options would be to organize as either an “S” or “C” corporation. However, these both imply more paperwork, and tax complexity implications. I think that these are probably overkill for your venture.
This is great advice – thanks, Phil. As I wrote in another response above, I plan to transition to LLC as soon as I start generating revenue. As to an S or C corporation – that may never happen (unless, of course, my books start selling like Jared Diamond’s, Or Steven Pinker’s).
First off, “Beresta” sounds like a fine name to my native-English-speaking ears. Good choice.
Secondly, my wife did an LLC in Texas, and while there was some paperwork it wasn’t all that onerous. It may vary by state, I don’t know, but at least in some states it’s really not all that bad. Any unknown governmental/bureaucratic process is a bit intimidating (to me, at least), not least because you don’t get much feedback while you’re doing it as to whether you’re doing it right or not. But setting up an LLC is not (in Texas at least) hugely expensive or time-consuming. At least, not ten years ago when we did it last.
Looks like the responses are converging to a consensus! Thanks, Ross.
As a young academic making his first foray into the world of scientific publishing (I just signed a contract with Brill for exclusive rights to review and then publish, if they wish, my first book) your ideas Peter about self-publishing appeal to me immensely. It is a shame that someone in my position cannot afford to go a more non-traditional, independent/ open-access publication route (at least that was the advice I was given by all my peers and colleagues). So, for the sake merely of having a line on my CV that says ‘book’, I have to sign away my copyright claims to a publishing house who will produce a nice-looking and prohibitively expensive monograph that no-one will ever read, instead of putting up a nice, searchable digital version on an open-access site.
Hopefully, as greedy for-profit print publishing becomes increasingly obsolete, it will also become increasingly viable a career-path for early-career scholars to bypass the industry. I only hope Peter that your example can help push the digital revolution along faster and show publishing houses the folly of their greed and obsolete business models.
I also agree, as a native English speaker, that Beresta is a great name!
Dan, you have graduated during what looks to be a transitional period. That could be a huge problem, but also an opportunity. I think it makes a lot of sense to go with the traditional publisher for now, but your academic life is just beginning! I am very interested to see how the landscape of academic publishing is going to be transformed in the next 10 years.
Peter, are you planning to publish on dead trees or electronically?
Both. The plan is to put the movement book on Kindle and as an ePub. At the same time, Amazon has a print-on-demand branch (CreateSpace), which prints paper copies as they are ordered. The idea is to leave the choice to readers.
I once heard sage advice that any business name should pass the Shout It Across the Street test. I think “Beresta” is phonetic enough to pass, with the bonus of being interesting (because it is non-Anglophone) and the neat symbolic reference.
I found your musings on publishers very insightful. Our Journal of International and Global Studies is also an open access online journal. Does Clodynamics have Elsiever Scopus approval. Many of our overseas authors want approval from Scopus in order to submit their essays to us. It is especially a big deal in Asia. We have an application for Scopus and we have been through three rounds with them, a very difficult hurdle. We are in our 6th year of publication so we will be eligible for SSIC indexing after this year.
You mentioned the Warfare text with OUP. I had Brian Ferguson send me his pieces instead of paying the outrageous sum for the volume. Have you read Violence and Warfare in Hunter-gathere Societies published by Left Coast Press? You can get it as an ebook and it is a worthwhile volume with a lot of empirical evidence and a good summary of the issues addressed by Fry, Ferguson et. al.
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